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工业木质素包膜缓释肥料的养分释放规律和田间肥效研究
Alternative TitleStudy on Nutrients Releasing Characteristics and Field trial Effects of Industrial Lignin coated Slow-Release Fertilizers
崔智多
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张小勇
2014-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Degree Discipline生物化工
Keyword缓释肥料 包膜 工业木质素 释放规律 田间试验
Abstract传统化学肥料的过度使用带来了巨额的经济损失,同时也造成了严重的环境问题,如地下水硝酸盐含量超标、水体富营养化等等。本研究使用来源广泛,成本低廉的工业木质素作为包膜材料对尿素和复合肥颗粒进行包膜,研制出具有缓释功能同时又具有土壤改良作用的工业木质素包膜缓释肥料,并对其缓释性能和田间使用效果等进行了考察。本论文主要分为以下几个部分: 1. 包膜缓释肥料的制备。 在实验室中制备了单一氮素养分缓释的包膜尿素和氮磷钾三养分缓释的包膜复合肥两个品种。包膜材料为酸析工业木质素,封闭剂为石蜡,利用转鼓法进行包膜。工业木质素经干燥、粉碎,过60目标准筛得到。包膜尿素的核心为直径2.8-4.0 mm的大颗粒尿素,养分含量46%,包膜尿素含氮量为35.64%;包膜复合肥的原料核心直径为2.5-3.5 mm,氮磷钾养分比例为16-16-16。制备方法同包膜尿素,包膜复合肥总养分含量为36.73%。 2. 包膜缓释肥料缓释规律的研究。 采用静水试验法、土壤淋溶法,对包膜肥料的缓释特性进行了研究。通过包膜尿素25℃的释放曲线可以看出,养分释放曲线呈“S”型,10 d之前的释放速度较慢,14 d-28 d释放速度最快。初期溶出率为8.03%,28 d养分释放率达到73.77%,达到了GB/T 23348—2009的要求。养分微分溶出率为1.83%,理论养分释放期为51.26天。 在包膜复合肥的25℃的静水试验中, N的释放速率是最大的,初期养分释放率达到14.85%,28 d释放率达到89.49%;K略次之,初期养分释放率为11.61%,28 d养分释放率达48.21%;P的释放速度最慢,28 d养分释放率为36.67%。从养分的释放趋势来看,N和K的释放呈指数型,P的释放趋势近乎于直线。三种养分的理论完全释放时间分别为31.85 d,64.99 d和84.07 d。其初期养分释放率为14.58%,28 d总养分释放率达58.12%,不同的养分类型,它们的缓释特性截然不同。 在淋溶试验中,随着温度的升高,肥料养分释放速度加快;随着淋溶介质孔隙率的增大,肥料的微分释放率增大,石英砂>沙土>壤土,理论释放时间缩短。Richards方程可以用来描述淋溶柱中尿素、复合肥的养分释放规律,其模拟出来的函数均收敛,实验证明,Richards方程可以作一个有效的经验工具。 3.包膜缓释肥料田间肥效研究。 包膜尿素在玉米上的田间试验表明:包膜尿素能改善玉米的生育性状、改善品质,亩穗数、穗粒数、千粒重均有所增加,秃尖率有所减少。在玉米上施用与普通尿素氮素等养分量的包膜缓释尿素增产效果明显,差异显著,比对照处理1亩增产37 kg-42.3 kg,增产率为5.16%-5.9%;施用包膜缓释尿素减量20%的处理比对照处理1亩减产9 kg,减产率为1.2%。但差异不显著。 包膜尿素在水稻上的田间试验表明:包膜尿素能改善水稻的生育性状、改善品质,水稻有效分蘖率、亩穗数、穗粒数、千粒重均有所增加。在水稻上施用与普通尿素氮素等量的包膜缓释尿素增产效果明显,差异显著,比对照处理1亩增产28.6 kg-43.4 kg,增产率为4.43%-6.73%;施用包膜缓释尿素减量10%的处理比对照处理1亩增产9.1 kg,增产率为1.41%。在水稻上施用包膜缓释尿素减量20%的处理比对照处理1则亩减产6.9 kg,减产率为1.0%,但差异未达到显著水平。 包膜复合肥在草坪草的试验表明:在施用等量养分的情况下,施用包膜复合肥比普通复合肥地上生物量增加13.3%-20.6%,在减施20%养分的情况地上生物量仍能增加1.1%和0.92%,但差异不显著。 包膜复合肥在万寿菊的试验表明:在施用等量养分的情况下,施用包膜复合肥比普通复合肥地上生物量上生物量增加19.2%-23.0%,在减施10%养分的情况地上生物量仍能增加5.5%-5.8%,差异显著。 研究表明:工业木质素包膜肥料具有良好的缓释性能和显著的肥效。
Other AbstractThe over use of traditional fertilizer brings huge economic losses and causes serious environment problems, such as eutrophication and excessive nitrate content of groundwater. New kind of coated fertilizers were made by industrial lignin, which is cheap and biodegradable. The nutrition is release much slower than traditional fertilizer, besides, it can improve the property of soil. 1. Process of Making Industrial Lignin coated Slow-Release Fertilizers Two kinds of fertilizer were made in our lab, coated urea and NPK compound fertilizer. The material of coat is industrial lignin, which is acid. The mesh of standard sieve is 60. After drying and smash, the industrial lignin was used to make coat, mixed with paraffin wax. The diameter of core urea is 2.8-4.0mm, and nutrition content of coated urea is 35.64%. The diameter of core NPK compound is 2.5-3.5mm, the nutrition content of coated NPK compound is 36.73%. 2. Reaearch on Releasing characteristics of Insustrial Lignin coated Slow-Release Fertilizers Deionized water immersing and soil colume leaching were used to study the releasing charactetistics of controlled release fertilizers. Releasing curve of coat urea at 25℃ shows that the curve has “S” style, and the releasing rate is faster in the first 10days than that in 14th day to 28th day. The initial releasing rate was 8.03%, and cumulative releasing rate reached 73.77%. The differential releasing rate was 1.83% and theoretical releasing time was 51.26 days. In the deionized water immersing experiment of NPK compound at 25℃,the releasing rate of N was the fastest whose initial releasing rate was 14.85%, its cumulative releasing rate of 28 days was 89.49%; K was the second, whose intial releasing rate was 11.61%, its cumulative releasing rate of 28 days was 48.21%. P was the slowest, its cumulative releasing rate was 36.67%. The releasing curve of N and K was exponential and P was linear. The theoretical releasing time of N, P, K was 31.85 days, 64.99 days and 84.07 days. In colume leaching experiments, the releasing rate of nutrients was increasing with the rising of temperature. Besides, the bigger porosity was, the faster the releasing rate was. Results show that Richards Equation can be used to describe the releasing characteristics of urea and NPK compound fertilizer in leaching experiments. 3. Field trial on effect of Industrial Lignin coated Slow-Release Fertilizers Field trial on corn of coated urea showed that coated urea can improve the reproductive characteristics and quality of fruits. Compared with normal urea with the same nutrients content, output of coated urea was higher by 5.16%-5.9%. The production decreased by 1.2% when the nutrients of coated fertilizer had a decrement of 20%, but the difference was not significant. Field trial on rice of coated urea showed that coated urea can improve the reproductive characteristics and quality of fruits. Compared with normal urea with the same nutrients content, output of coated urea was higher by 4.43-6.73%. The production decreased by 1.0% when the nutrients of coated fertilizer had a decrement of 20%, but difference was not significant. Field trial on lawn grass of coated NPK compound fertilizer showed that: compared with normal NPK compound fertilizer with the same nutrients content, biomass of coated NPK compound fertilizer was higher by 13.3-20.6%. The production increased by 0.92%-1.1%, when the nutrients of coated fertilizer had a decrement of 20%, but the difference was not significant. Field trial on marigold of coated NPK compound fertilizer showed that: compared with normal NPK compound fertilizer with the same nutrients content, biomass of coated NPK compound fertilizer was higher by 19.2-23.0%. The production increased by 5.5%-5.8%, when the nutrients of coated fertilizer had a decrement of 10%, and the difference was significant. Results show that: controlled release fertilizer coated by industrial lignin has good controlled releasing
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/15509
Collection研究所(批量导入)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
崔智多. 工业木质素包膜缓释肥料的养分释放规律和田间肥效研究[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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