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石煤提钒空白焙烧-浸出工艺技术研究
潘占开
学位类型硕士
导师叶树峰 ; 李青春
2015-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业化学工程
关键词石煤钒矿 焙烧 酸浸 助浸剂
其他摘要

针对传统的钠化焙烧工艺处理甘肃方山口石煤钒矿存在的能耗高、资源利用率低和环境污染严重等问题,研究开发了处理石煤钒矿的空白氧化焙烧–助浸剂酸浸新工艺。论文以石煤钒矿焙烧和助浸剂强化分解石煤钒矿为切入点,进行了大量的实验研究,得到主要结论如下:(1)通过对矿物进行工艺矿物学研究,矿石的矿物组成较为简单,主要为石英和钒云母;少量的高岭石、电气石、有机碳、含钒铌金红石、褐铁矿、氟磷灰石。矿石中有用矿物的粒度细小、嵌石关系较复杂,其中粒度大于0.074mm,石英片43.62%、钒云母占2. 25%、金红石占27.81%;而粒度小于0. 010mm,石英占15.57%、钒云母占53.35%、金红石占1.47%,由于钒云母的粒度呈微细粒和超微粒存在、在磨矿过程中很难单体解离和裸露,因此本矿不能用选矿方法富集钒、对湿法浸钒工艺也影响极大。(2)直接浸出探索实验表明采用氢氟酸或浓酸熟化直接浸出的效果较好,粒度0.147mm的矿物在氢氟酸浓度40%,浸出温度60℃,浸出液固比3:1的条件下,浸出率达到83.60%,采用而低浓度硫酸在浸出时间12小时,浸出温度60℃,添加复合助浸剂5%的NaF和10%的H2O2,浸出率能够达到88.40%,但均存在成本高和浸出液杂质含量高的问题。(3)钠系、钙系或复合添加剂焙烧?硫酸浸出的探索实验表明氯化钠焙烧效果明显,达到85.6%,而钙化合物焙烧效果差,只有62.14%,添加剂焙烧均存在环保和成本高等问题。(4)首次提出了处理石煤钒矿的空白氧化焙烧–助浸剂酸浸新工艺。实验结果表明,在焙烧温度850℃、焙烧时间60min和矿物粒度0.147mm的最优焙烧条件及浸出温度90℃、浸出酸浓10%、新型助浸剂Y 2%、浸出时间12h和浸出液固比3:1的最优浸出条件下,钒回收率达85%以上。(5)焙烧炉型选择实验结果表明,微波焙烧的效果与马弗炉焙烧相当,理论上可替代工业使用的竖炉、平窑、回转窑等,且在最优焙烧、浸出条件下钒浸出率高达87.06%,而流化床焙烧会现结块现象,因此该工艺不宜采用流态化焙烧的炉型。

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Research on blank roasting-leaching technology of extracting vanadium from stone coalPAN Zhan-kai (Chemical Engineering)Directed by Ye Shufeng AbstractIn order to solve the problems of high energy consumption, low resource utilization rate and severe environmental pollution from traditional roasting process with sodium compounds dealing with stone coal vanadium ore from Fang Shankou district of Gan Su province, through exploratory experiments, a new process of blank roasting?acid leaching with auxiliary leaching agent was developed. In this dissertation, based on intensifying decomposition of vanadium ore via roasting and auxiliary leaching method, basic research of the new technology was carried out. Main achievements and innovative progresses were exhibited as follows:(1)Process mineralogy of stone coal vanadium was studied, whose results showed that the ore was mainly composed of quartz and vanadium mica. Pre?enrichment experiments of decarbonization flotation showed that higher grades of vanadium went into tailings,so flotation decarbonization couldn't achieve desired effect and was unreasonable.(2)Process of direct leaching was investigated. Results indicated that effect of direct leaching with hydrofluoric acid or concentrated acid ripening was obvious, under the leaching conditions of 0.147mm of ore particle size, 40% of hydrofluoric acid concentration, 60℃of temperature and 3:1 of liquid-solid ratio, leaching rate of vanadium reached 83.60%; while leaching with sulfuric acid of low concentration, even under leaching conditions of 12 hour, 60℃ of temperature and 5%+10% of concentration of aided leachant NaF+H2O2, leaching rate of 88.40% was gained. But there were problems of high cost and content of impurities in leachate with this method.(3)Process of roasting with sodium compounds, calcium compounds or composite additives ?acid leaching was investigated. Results indicated that effect of sodium-roasting was obvious, leaching rate of 85.6% of vanadium was achieved, but there were issues of environment and cost on roasting with sodium-based additives, while effect of calcium roasting was poor, with leaching rate of only 62.14%.(4)Process of blank roasting?acid leaching with auxiliary leaching agent dealing with stone coal vanadium ore was proposed for the first time. Effect of temperature, time and particle size of ore on roasting of ore and influence of acid concentration, concentration of auxiliary leaching agent, temperature, reaction time and mass ratio of liquid?solid ratio on leaching of vanadium were systematically studied. Results indicated that under optimal conditions: calcination temperature of 850℃, calcination time of 60 min, granularity of 0.147mm, leaching temperature of 90℃, concentration of sulfuric acid of 10%, concentration of auxiliary leaching agent of 2%, leaching time of 12 h and liquid?solid ratio of 3:1, more than 85% of vanadium in vanadium ore was recycled. (5)Research on selection of furnace type was preliminarily carried out. Experimental results showed that effect of roasting with microwave was equivalent to that with muffle furnace. The former theoretically can replace industrial shaft furnace, flat kiln and rotary kiln, and the leaching rate reaches 87.06% under the optimal condition. Fluidized bed is not adopted because of phenomenon of caking

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/21354
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潘占开. 石煤提钒空白焙烧-浸出工艺技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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