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二氧化锰多壳层空心球的合成及其在 超级电容器中的应用
陈梦婕
学位类型硕士
导师王丹 ; 金泉
2016-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业材料学
关键词二氧化锰多壳层空心球 超级电容器 阴离子吸附 水热强化
摘要

随着人口的持续增长以及科学技术的不断进步,能源和环境问题已经成为制约人类发展的重要因素,促使着人类对于新型高效节能、绿色无污染的可再生能源的寻找和研究。超级电容器作为一种新型的能源存储装置,具有循环寿命长、功率密度高等众多优势,引起了国内外研究人员的广泛重视。目前限制其大规模商业化应用的主要因素是能量密度低、稳定性不理想等问题。本论文基于以上问题,从超级电容器电极材料的设计合成出发,选择具有较高理论比容量(1370 F/g)、环境友好、价格低廉的MnO2材料作为超级电容器电极材料,设计合成多壳层MnO2空心球,通过调变合成条件调控材料形貌结构,优化MnO2电极材料的电容器性能,整体提高电容器综合性能,目前主要取得了以下成果:(1)选择碳球作为模板,KMnO4为锰源。采用水热强化吸附的方法,增加高MnO4-吸附量。通过调节水热温度、水热时间以及煅烧条件,合成了单、双、三、四壳层MnO2空心球,并通过一系列表征手段考察了样品的形貌结构。(2)深入研究了多壳层MnO2空心球的形成机理,发现水热强化吸附过程提供的外加压力和温度可以提高金属离子在碳球模板上的吸附量和吸附深度,并通过调控吸附和煅烧条件进一步优化多壳层MnO2空心球的形貌和结构,进而优化其超级电容器性能,提高材料比电容量、改善倍率性能和循环稳定性。利用其独特的多层结构解决了MnO2材料自身所存在的离子电子传导性差、实际比表面积小、在电解液中易发生部分溶解等问题。(3)研究了多壳层MnO2空心球电极材料的超级电容器性能,获得了优异的比电容量、倍率性能和循环稳定性:四壳层MnO2空心球的比电容量可以达到1457 F/g(电流密度为0.5 A/g);5A/g的大电流密度下,连续循环4000次后容量保持率依然可以高达91.2%。

其他摘要

With the development of the technology and the increasing of the population, energy shortage and environmental problem have been the essential problems. Nowadays, many domestic and international researchers all spare no effort to develop effective and environmental friendly energy and sources. Among all the energy storage systems, supercapacitors (SCs) have drawn great attentions for the high power density and long cycle life. However, SCs still cannot be widely used since low accessible energy density, poor cycling stability and so on. Based on all these advantages and disadvantages mentioned above, we choose MnO2 as the supercapactior electrode materials in this thesis since MnO2 has high theoretical capacity (1370 F/g), low cost and low toxicity. By varying the synthesis conditions, the morphology and structure of the MnO2 materials, the multi-shelled MnO2 hollow microspheres were obtained and further applied as electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance. (1) Single-, double-, triple- and quadruple- shelled MnO2 hollow microspheres were prepared by hydrothermally enhanced adsorption method to enhance the Mn-adsorption amount, using carbon microspheres as hard templates and KMnO4 as Mn-precursor. We controlled the experimental parameters such as hydrothermal time and temperature and characterized the morphology and structure by various methods.(2) After figuring out the mechanism of the forming process of the multi-shelled MnO2 hollow microspheres, we found that we can enhance Mn-adsorption amount and depth into CMSs via hydrothermally enhanced adsorption method. With the help of the mechanism of the forming process, we accurately controlled the structural parameters of multi-shelled MnO2 hollow microspheres which exhibit high specific capacitance, excellent rate performance, and outstanding cycling stability as supercapacitor electrodes.(3) When used as the electrode materials for SCs, multi-shelled MnO2 hollow microspheres exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, especially quadruple-shelled MnO2 hollow microspheres have an impressive specific capacitance as high as 1457 F/g at the current density of 0.5 A/g and the remarkable cycling performance with 91.2 % capacitance retention even after 4000 consecutive cycles. 

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/22870
专题研究所(批量导入)
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陈梦婕. 二氧化锰多壳层空心球的合成及其在 超级电容器中的应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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