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A Critical Review and Analysis on the Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries
Lv, Weiguang1,2,3; Wang, Zhonghang1,3; Cao, Hongbin1,3; Sun, Yong4; Zhang, Yi1,3; Sun, Zhi1,3

Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted significant attention in recent years due to the increasing demand for corresponding critical metals/materials and growing pressure on the environmental impact of solid waste disposal. A range of investigations have been carried out for recycling spent LIBs to obtain either battery materials or individual compounds. For the effective recovery of materials to be enhanced, physical pretreatment is usually applied to obtain different streams of waste materials ensuring efficient separation for further processing. Subsequently, a metallurgical process is used to extract metals or separate impurities from a specific waste stream so that the recycled materials or compounds can be further prepared by incorporating principles of materials engineering. In this review, the current status of spent LIB recycling is summarized in light of the whole recycling process, especially focusing on the hydrometallurgy. In addition to understanding different hydrometallurgical technologies including acidic leaching, alkaline leaching, chemical precipitation, and solvent extraction, the existing challenges for process optimization during the recycling are critically analyzed. Moreover, the energy consumption of different processes is evaluated and discussed. It is expected that this research could provide a guideline for improving spent LIB recycling, and this topic can be further stimulated for industrial realization.

KeywordSpent Libs Pretreatment Recycling Environmental Impact Hydrometallurgy
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Physical Sciences ; Technology
Indexed BySCI
WOS KeywordClosed-loop Process ; Iron Phosphate Batteries ; Cathodic Active Material ; Nickel Metal Hydride ; Valuable Metals ; Hydrometallurgical Process ; Secondary Batteries ; Solvent-extraction ; Leach Liquor ; Acidithiobacillus-ferrooxidans
WOS Research AreaChemistry ; Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Engineering
WOS SubjectChemistry, Multidisciplinary ; Green & Sustainable Science & Technology ; Engineering, Chemical
Funding OrganizationNational Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFB0403300/2017YFB043305) ; Beijing Science and Technology Program(Z171100002217028) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China(51425405 ; National Science and Technology Support Plan Project(2015BAB02B05) ; L1624051)
WOS IDWOS:000424728300001
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Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Proc Engn, Natl Engn Lab Hydromet Cleaner Prod & Technol, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
2.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
3.Beijing Engn Res Ctr Proc Pollut Control, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
4.Edith Cowan Univ, Sch Engn, 270 Joondalup Dr, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Lv, Weiguang,Wang, Zhonghang,Cao, Hongbin,et al. A Critical Review and Analysis on the Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries[J]. ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING,2018,6(2):1504-1521.
APA Lv, Weiguang,Wang, Zhonghang,Cao, Hongbin,Sun, Yong,Zhang, Yi,&Sun, Zhi.(2018).A Critical Review and Analysis on the Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries.ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING,6(2),1504-1521.
MLA Lv, Weiguang,et al."A Critical Review and Analysis on the Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries".ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING 6.2(2018):1504-1521.
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