Puzzles and confusions in supercapacitor and battery: Theory and solutions
Xie, Jiale1,2; Yang, Pingping2,6; Wang, Yi3; Qi, Tao3; Lei, Yong4,5; Li, Chang Ming1,2,6

Supercapacitors and batteries have been intensively investigated but there is much confusion and misleading between them in publications. In particular, some battery behaviours are incorrectly as supercapacitors and some reported "remarkable" performances like the high specific capacitance of 2188 F g(-1) for Ni(OH)(2) nano spheres are not true. It is likely that the energy storage mechanism and the similar device configuration/characterization techniques cause confusions. It is important to clarify and remove confusion about both theoretical and experimental aspects of these two types of energy devices. This review starts with briefing fundamentals of battery and supercapacitor specifically emphasizing the essential difference on energy storage mechanism between pseudocapacitors and batteries, in which the former undergoes rapid surface-controlled electrochemical reactions without diffusion control and phase transformation, while the latter stores energy in the crystal lattices or porous materials through much slower electrochemical reactions with limits from the phase transformation, chemical binding changes or/and reactant diffusions. Correct characterization and analysis methods such as cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a suggested working flowchart to distinguish them are presented while offering thoughtful discussions and explanations about the confusions. Perspectives are also offered for realizing high-energy density ECs without trading off its high power density.

KeywordElectrochemical Energy Storage Electrochemical Capacitor Battery Confusion Solution
WOS KeywordElectrochemical Energy-storage ; Double-layer ; Electrode Material ; High-performance ; Fuel-cells ; Capacitors ; Graphene ; Ion ; Pseudocapacitance ; Density
Funding ProjectNational Natural Science Foundation of China[21703150] ; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation[2015M582495] ; Suzhou University of Science and Technology[331812148] ; Suzhou University of Science and Technology[341834902] ; Southwest University[SWU111071] ; Chongqing Science and Technology Commission[cstc2012gjhz90002]
WOS Research AreaChemistry ; Electrochemistry ; Energy & Fuels ; Materials Science
WOS SubjectChemistry, Physical ; Electrochemistry ; Energy & Fuels ; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
Funding OrganizationNational Natural Science Foundation of China ; China Postdoctoral Science Foundation ; Suzhou University of Science and Technology ; Southwest University ; Chongqing Science and Technology Commission
WOS IDWOS:000449444500025
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Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorLi, Chang Ming
Affiliation1.Suzhou Univ Sci & Technol, Inst Mat Sci & Devices, Suzhou 215009, Peoples R China
2.Southwest Univ, Fac Mat & Energy, Inst Clean Energy & Adv Mat, Chongqing 400715, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Engn Lab Hydromet Cleaner Prod Technol, Inst Proc Engn, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
4.Ilmenau Univ Technol, Inst Phys, D-98693 Ilmenau, Germany
5.Ilmenau Univ Technol, IMN MacroNanos ZIK, D-98693 Ilmenau, Germany
6.Chongqing Key Lab Adv Mat & Technol Clean Elect P, Chongqing 400715, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Xie, Jiale,Yang, Pingping,Wang, Yi,et al. Puzzles and confusions in supercapacitor and battery: Theory and solutions[J]. JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES,2018,401:213-223.
APA Xie, Jiale,Yang, Pingping,Wang, Yi,Qi, Tao,Lei, Yong,&Li, Chang Ming.(2018).Puzzles and confusions in supercapacitor and battery: Theory and solutions.JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES,401,213-223.
MLA Xie, Jiale,et al."Puzzles and confusions in supercapacitor and battery: Theory and solutions".JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES 401(2018):213-223.
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