CAS OpenIR
黑液类腐植酸的分子结构、生理活性及田间应用研究
尚冰凯
Thesis Advisor张小勇, 王亚彪
2020-07-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Degree Name硕士
Degree Discipline生物工程
Keyword造纸黑液,类腐植酸物质,生理活性,清洁生产
Abstract

造纸黑液是造纸工业的最大污染物。目前迫切需要一种良好的黑液资源化利用的绿色技术来实现造纸工业的清洁生产。钾碱制浆技术是采用氢氧化钾代替传统的氢氧化钠进行制浆,从而使黑液中含有植物生长必须的钾元素,利于黑液的资源化利用,是一种有潜力的绿色工艺。本文主要从4种造纸原料经钾碱制浆得到的黑液中,提取获得了类腐植酸钾物质,并与矿物源腐植酸进行了化学结构的比较,以及对黑液类腐植酸钾提高种子萌发以及促进作物生长方面的能力进行了验证;通过田间试验测试了黑液类腐植酸钾与传统肥料配施后对棉花产量,根系生长以及土壤肥力等方面的影响。(1)黑液类腐植酸物质与矿物源腐植酸组成以及化学结构的对比以非木质材料为原料制备得到的样品中,黄腐酸的含量要高于木质材料制备的样品。通过元素分析以及紫外光谱结果发现黑液类腐植酸的芳香化程度比矿物源腐植酸高,其中非木原料(麦草、竹子)样品的芳香化程度最高,分子量更小。这意味着非木原料在生物学活性方面会表现出更好的效果,同时由于芳香化程度更高,黑液类腐植酸可能会具有更复杂的分子结构。同时红外光谱分析结果显示,黑液类腐植酸与矿物源腐植酸具有相似的腐植酸特征官能团,但是官能团的相对含量有一定的差异。固体核磁结果说明,它们的分子结构基本相同,但是黑液类腐植酸的分子结构更加的复杂、种类更多并且芳香结构也更多。(2)黑液类腐植酸钾对于种子萌发以及棉花幼苗生长的影响黑液类腐植酸钾显示出良好的促进种子萌发的能力,并且表现出类似植物生长素的低促高抑的特点。其中松木源的黑液类腐植酸钾在浓度在40 mg/L效果最好,而竹子源的黑液类腐植酸钾最适浓度为20 mg/L。棉花幼苗水培试验中,适宜浓度的黑液类腐植酸钾提升了棉花幼苗的各项指标,黑液类腐植酸钾(松木)在浓度为80 mg/L时对棉花幼苗各项指标具有显著地促进作用,株高和根长方面与对照组相比显著增加了16.27%和10.22%;黑液类腐植酸钾(竹子)的结果与以松木为原料的黑液类腐植酸钾的结果比较相似,不同的是,黑液类腐植酸钾(竹子)在浓度为40 mg/L时,对棉花幼苗的各项指标提升有显著的促进作用,株高和根长方面与对照组相比显著增加了14.49%和12.23%,不同原料制得的黑液类腐植酸钾在浓度增大到100 mg/L时,均对棉花幼苗的生长产生了抑制效果。(3)黑液类腐植酸钾在大田环境中作为土壤调理剂对棉花的整个生长发育阶段的影响,以及土壤肥力的变化。黑液类腐植酸钾与矿物源的腐植酸钾对棉花的整个生长发育阶段都有促进作用,施用黑液类腐植酸钾时增产率最高可达到9.0%。施用腐殖酸钾的增产率最高为11.2%;同时两者都对棉花的单株成铃数和单铃重有促进的作用;对棉花根系具有刺激生长的作用,显著的增加棉花的产量;并且黑液类腐植酸钾可以促进植株对氮磷钾的吸收,在一定程度上改善土壤肥力,实现了养分的高效利用。;Papermaking black liquor is the largest pollutant in the paper industry. There is an urgent need for a black liquor resource utilization of green technology to achieve clean production in the paper industry. Potash alkali pulp technology is to use KOH instead of the traditional NaOH for pulp, the black liquor contains potassium which is necessary for plant growth, and is conducive to the resource utilization of black liquor, which is a potential green technology.In this paper, the black liquor obtained from four kinds of papermaking raw materials using potassium-alkali pulp was extracted to obtain potassium-like humate substances, and the chemical structure of black liquor-like humate and mineral-derived humate were compared, and the physiological activity of black liquor-like humate was further studied, and the practical application effect of black liquor-like humate was determined through field experiments.(1) Comparative study of the composition and chemical structure of black liquor humic substances and mineral-derived humic acids.The chemical analysis showed that the content of xanthate humic acid was higher in the samples prepared from non-wood materials than in the samples prepared from wood materials. Elemental analysis and UV spectroscopic results showed that black liquid humic acids were more aromatic than mineral source humic acids, with the non-wood raw material (wheat grass, bamboo) samples being more aromatic and having a smaller molecular weight.Infrared spectroscopy showed that black liquor humic acid and mineral humic acid had similar humic acid functional groups, but the relative content of the functional groups was different. NMR results also show that the molecular structure is basically the same, but the black liquor humic acid has a more complex molecular structure, more species and more aromatic structures.(2) Effect of black liquid potassium humate on seed germination and growth of cotton seedlings.The germination tests on wheat seeds showed that the black liquor potassium humate had a good ability to promote seed germination and exhibited similar characteristics as phytoestrogens. The optimum concentrations of potassium humate-like plants were 40 mg/L for pine and 20 mg/L for bamboo, respectively.The results of hydroponic tests on cotton seedlings showed that black-liquid potassium humate had a significant effect on the growth of cotton seedlings at appropriate concentrations. The optimum concentration of black-liquid potassium humate of pine origin at 80 mg/L increased the plant height and root length of cotton seedlings by 16.27% and 10.22%, respectively, compared with the control; the optimum concentration of black-liquid potassium humate of bamboo origin at 40 mg/L increased the plant height and root length by 14.49% and 12.23%, respectively. When the concentration of black liquid potassium humate exceeded 100 mg/L, it inhibited the growth of cotton seedlings.(3) Effect of black liquid potassium humate on growth and yield of cottonThe results of field trials on cotton showed that black liquor potassium humate had a significant stimulating effect on the entire growth and development of cotton, increasing the number of bobbins per plant and the weight of bobbins per plant. Black liquid potassium humate also has the effect of stimulating the growth of cotton roots, significantly increased the yield of cotton, the highest yield increase rate of 11.2%. Black liquid potassium humate can also promote the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of the plant, to achieve the efficient use of nutrients.The results of this study can provide a good theoretical basis for the potassium humate like humic acid obtained from the black liquor of potassium-alkali pulp to become a substitute for mineral source humic acid, so that the black liquor of papermaking can be completely resource utilization and realize clean production. 

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/49710
Collection中国科学院过程工程研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
尚冰凯. 黑液类腐植酸的分子结构、生理活性及田间应用研究[D]. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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