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Thesis Advisor杨章远
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Abstract为了实现对于高炉冶炼过程的有效控制,有必要建立高炉过程的控制模型,将高炉冶炼知识与控制理论相结合,动态地描述高炉内部反应过程。对于高炉内部的物理、化学反应,长期以来进行了大量的研究工作,这些工作集中表现在建立高炉内部物料平衡、热平衡、炉料分布和煤气流分布模型。由于高炉内部情况十分复杂,特别是高炉经常性地处于非稳定状态,这些模型仍以精确描述高炉内部反应过程的性质。所以,在工业生产中,对高炉的操作控制一般是依靠工长对高炉重要仪表的监视和分析数据,根据观察到的和测量到的大量信息之间的关系,结合多年的工作经验来决定操作动作。人工智能技术的发展,为将计算机用于高炉冶炼过程控制带来了新的思想和方法。根据这种状况,在进行三十立方米高炉炼磷过程的计算机监测和控制系统研制的同时,进行了将知识工程发展的最新成果用于高炉冶过程操作指导的尝试工作。高炉冶炼过程计算机监测和控制系统由两个相互联接的、分成上下两层的计算机构成,下位机STD BUS工业控制计算机用于数据采集和在线参量的显示,并对混风温度、炉顶压力和净煤气压力等进行控制。所采集的数据定时地送到上位机IBM-PC机进行进一步的数据处理。采用人工智能语言PROLOG编写炉况判断程序,根据现场的变化,分析出现炉况异常的征兆,进行炉况异常预报。在炉况判断程序设计中,所用的规则是参照高炉操作工长的实践经验并模拟人的思考方式而编制的。从现场所采集的数据经处理后,以事实的形式和有关规则结合在一起进行炉况判断。由程序输出炉况判断的结果,与此同时系统提供相应的信息,作为高炉操作的参考。该项程序设计是基于离线数据之上的,系统的在线考验和完善还有待进行进一步的实验和研究工作来完成。
Other AbstractIn order to establish an effective technique for blast furnace control, it is essential to gain the knowledge of the various reactions and interactions taking place in the furnace. A great deal of research has been carried out. Computer programs based on material and heat balance calculations are used for blast furnace operations. These mathematical models are reliable for the stable condition of the process. However, the blast furnace process is often in the unstable conditions caused by some unexpected irregularities, raw materials changes, disturbances or maintenance activities. For these cases, operational actions are taken to deal with the difficulties according to the judgement based on experienced knowledge. Recent investigations show that to incorporate the metallurgical knowledge, both theoretical and experienced, into the blast furnace control computer for the process control attracts much attention. An attempt has been made to introduce the concept of artificial intelligence to the process control of a 30M~3 blast furnace which is used for phosphorus making. The computer control system of this process is composed of two interconnected computers. A "STD BUS System II" computer is used to collect the primary data and to display the online signals in the flow chart on a color screen. The temperature of the blowing air, the top pressure and the gas pressure are controlled at the same level. At fixed periods, the online data is transmitted to and IBM - PC computer which performs the higher level data processing. Besides of the heat and mass calculations, it runs a PROLOG program which is used for predicting the process condition and acts as the operational guidance. The identification of the furnace condition is drawn on the base of the careful analysis of the gathered data. A series of calculations and comparisons are made. The results of these calculations support the furnace condition recognition according to the rules of the experienced knowledge. A set of standard values is defined by applying statistical calculations to the normal condition of the process which plays an important role in the judgement for the process condition. At the same time, the online data is compared with their former values for estimating the trend of the variations. Some important irregular conditions of the blast furnace are paid more attention. The methodology in expressing the experienced knowledge of the blast furnace is the main problem in the establishment of the knowledge base which should be open to the users for modification and knowledge accumulation. Some of the imitation of the thinking process of the blast furnace operators are made. The results of the calculations and data analysis are expressed in the form of facts and are linked to the rules for the judgement of the furnace condition. The answers to the goals identify the furnace condition as normal or to be certain trouble. Suggestions of the operational acts are given as well.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
沈星. 高炉冶炼过程计算机监控系统的研制及炉况预测系统初探[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,1990.
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