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棉秆资源转化为纸浆和肥料的清洁高值化研究
Alternative TitleStudy on Clean and High-value Utilization of Cotton Straw Resource Transformed into Pulp and Fertili
莫海涛
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor陈洪章
2013-05-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Degree Discipline生物化工
Keyword棉秆   黑液   腐植酸肥料   木质素缓释肥料   清洁高值化
Abstract我国每年产生大量的棉秆废弃物,大部分被遗弃和焚烧,造成环境污染。同时我国造纸行业制浆黑液污染严重,传统的黑液治理方法成本高。肥料行业存在养分利用率低和肥料品种单一等问题。本文针对这一系列资源和环境问题,基于秸秆化学多组分的特点,提出对棉秆采用钾碱进行制浆得到纸制品,同时将含钾黑液低成本转化为腐植酸肥料和缓释肥料的新技术体系。该技术彻底消除了黑液污染,改善了肥料结构,实现了棉秆的清洁高值化利用。本文进一步又提出了棉秆资源的循环经济利用模式,并从技术、经济、环境、行业和社会等多层面对其进行详细而综合的评价。本文对深入研究秸秆资源的清洁利用具有重要的研究价值,为其他秸秆的高效利用提供了新思路。 本文主要得出如下结论: 1. 通过对全棉秆KOH制浆工艺参数的优化,确定最佳工艺条件为:KOH 25%,亚硫酸铵2%,液固比6:1,最高温度170℃,保温时间120 min,蒽醌0.1%。最终纸浆得率为48.7%,kappa值为16.4,制得的瓦楞原纸符合国家标准的要求。棉秆KOH制浆过程中木质素的脱除可分为初期脱木素阶段、大量脱木素阶段和补充脱木素阶段等三个阶段,钾碱可有效地降解木质素中愈创木基和对羟基木基等基团。通过对全棉秆KOH制浆体系的反应动力学研究,得到动力学方程。棉秆的活化能为60.42 kJ/mol。 2. 通过对黑液转化为腐植酸肥料各种影响因素的研究,确定了以尿素、磷酸二铵和氯化钾为氮磷钾原料,硫酸为中和酸,微量元素1‰,柠檬酸作为螯合剂,总养分含量为24%的最佳配方。制备得到的腐植酸肥料符合行标《含腐植酸水溶肥料》的要求。棉花盆栽和小区试验表明,腐植酸肥料可促进棉株生长和发育,提高棉花产量14.8%,肥料的最适施用量是1800 kg/hm2。腐植酸肥料可以使养分在土壤深层较均匀地分布,并能降低叶片的蒸腾速率,提高叶片的保水力和CAT活力,从而明显增强棉株的抗旱能力。 3. 提出“多膜控释”制备技术,以钾碱木质素为主要包膜材料来制备木质素缓释肥料,确定最优工艺参数为木质素15%,棕榈蜡5%,大豆油1.5%,PAM 0.03‰。制得的肥料达到国标《缓释肥料》的要求。由最佳参数制得的木质素缓释肥料的养分释放曲线为典型的“S”型,与植物对养分的需求规律一致,其养分释放率随温度和pH值的升高而增大。缓释机理研究表明,包膜量较低的缓释肥料养分释放呈现“崩溃”机制,而包膜量较高的缓释肥料养分释放表现为“扩散”机制。棉花试验结果表明,与复合肥相比,木质素缓释肥料可明显促进棉花在各生育期的生长,棉花可增产16.7%。木质素缓释肥料的氮和磷的利用率分别达到52.1%和39.5%,通过减缓养分释放有效提高了养分利用率。木质素缓释肥料具有包裹材料廉价、可完全降解、养分利用率高等优点。 4. 通过对棉秆钾碱制浆工艺参数的放大实验,确定了液固比、升温程序等中试最优参数。建成了日处理棉秆5吨并联产纸浆和腐植酸肥料的中试生产线。中试研究表明,全棉秆制得的瓦楞原纸符合国标要求,腐植酸肥料符合农业部行标要求。腐植酸肥料经3.3 hm2棉花大田应用后,可促进植株生长,棉花增产13.4%。研究结果说明棉杆转化为肥料和纸浆的清洁生产技术是成熟可行的。
Other AbstractA great deal of cotton straw waste is produced in China every year. Most cotton straws are abandoned or set on fire, causing environmental pollution. In paper-making industry, the pollution of black liquor from pulp-making is substantially serious, while the cost of traditional method for black liquor treatment is very high. In fertilizer industry, there are some problems, such as low utilization rate of nutrients and simple varieties of fertilizer. In this paper, based on the characteristics in chemical multi-components of the straw, a new technology was proposed to solve a series of resource and environmental problems. In the technology, cotton straw was cooked with KOH to make pulp, and then black liquor containing K element completely converted into humic acid fertilizer or slow release fertilizer. By the technology, the pollution of black liquor was entirely eliminated, and the structure of fertilizer industry was improved. Finally, Clean and high-value utilization of the cotton straw was achieved. Furthermore, the circular economy utilization mode of the cotton straw resource was brought forward. Detailed and comprehensive evaluation on the utilization mode was made in the technical, economical, environmental and social aspects. This study shows important research value in deep study on clean and efficient utilization of straw resources, and provides a new idea for the application of other straws. The key points of the paper are summarized as follows: (1) By optimizing the conditions for whole cotton straw cooking with KOH, the optimal technical parameters were as follows: KOH 25%, (NH4)2SO4 2%, maximum temperature 170oC, cooking time 120 min at 170 oC, liquid-to-solid ratio 6:1; AQ 0.1 %. Under the conditions, kappa number and yield of pulp was 16.4 and 48.7%, respectively. Corrugated medium made from cotton straw met the requirement of national standard. In KOH cooking course of cotton straw, process of delignification could be divided into three notable stages: initial delignification stage, major delignification stage and complementary delignification stage.
Pages147
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/8239
Collection研究所(批量导入)
Recommended Citation
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莫海涛. 棉秆资源转化为纸浆和肥料的清洁高值化研究[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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