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Alternative TitleStudy on the Atmospheric Hydrochloric Acid Leaching of Limonitic Laterite
Thesis Advisor齐涛 ; 曲景奎
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Degree Discipline化学工艺
Keyword褐铁型红土镍矿   常压浸出   盐酸   镍   钴   铁
Abstract褐铁型红土镍矿品位低,储量大,其合理开发利用,已经成为当今镍冶金行业亟待解决的热点问题。本文对现有红土矿处理技术进行了文献调研与分析,认为常压盐酸浸出-酸浸液热水解处理的技术思路有望实现褐铁型红土矿中镍、钴、铁等资源的高效回收利用,规避现有工艺中的众多技术和经济难题。结合已开发的“褐铁型红土镍矿高效综合利用新工艺”,同时有望实现金属的温和提取,并综合利用铬和铝等有价金属。本文的研究内容主要包括:1. 对红土镍矿的矿相成分进行表征,并对其进行常压盐酸浸出工艺研究,确定各元素浸出规律以及最佳浸出条件。结果表明,在1.25倍酸矿比时,镍、钴、铁的浸出率可达95%左右。同时研究了原矿中各种矿物发生溶解的酸矿比区间,并对不同矿物的反应活性给出理论解释。2. 对碱熔预处理红土矿得到的碱浸渣进行表征,并研究其常压浸出行为。对比了硫酸和盐酸两种浸出剂的适用性,确定最佳浸出条件,并对浸出动力学进行研究。结果表明,在HCl用量为1.25倍碱浸渣时,镍、钴、铁的浸出率可以达到95%以上。3. 对常压酸浸液的处理方法进行了分析比较,认为热水解操作有希望高效地实现资源综合利用与盐酸再生。热力学计算结果表明,可以通过控制水解温度等条件,回收HCl,制备氧化铁,同时得到NiCl2和CoCl2等。实验探索结果表明,热水解操作可以得到易于资源化的赤铁矿沉淀,而镍和钴在固相中的损失很小。
Other AbstractExploitation of limonitic laterites has become an urgent issue worldwide due to its abundant reserves, low-grades and homogenous nature. After reviewing the current processing technologies of laterites, a new route of atmospheric hydrochloric acid leaching-pyrohydrolysis was proposed to efficiently extract nickel, cobalt, iron, etc from the limonitic laterites and avoid excessive problems encountered in the current processes. Integrated with the newly developed “Synthetic and efficient utilization technology of limonitic laterites”, it is hopeful to achieve high leaching at milder conditions, and make use of value metals such as chromium and aluminum. The main research contents in the current paper are as follows:1. Characterization and analysis of the chemical and mineral compositions of the limonitic laterite ore, and study on atmospheric hydrochloric acid leaching of the ore, to determine the dissolution behaviors of elements and optimum leaching conditions, as well as the effect of additives. The leaching of Ni, Co and Fe approached ~95% when the acid-ore mass ratio (a/o) was 1.25. The regions of a/o for minerals dissolutions were also decided, and the activity of different minerals was interpreted.2. Characterization and atmospheric acid leaching of the limonitic laterite after alkali roasting-water leaching was carried out. Leaching behaviors of sulfuric and hydrochloric acid at atmospheric pressure were studied to determine the more favorable leaching agent. The optimum leaching condition was decided by experiments, and the leaching kinetics was also investigated. The leaching of Ni, Co, and Fe from the residue exceeded 95% when the acid-residue mass ratio was 1.25.3. Pyrohydrolysis was proposed as the most promising option to effectively and synthetically recover metals and acid in the leach liquor. Thermodynamic calculation results showed that it is feasible to regenerate HCl, produce iron oxides, while recovering NiCl2, CoCl2, etc by controlling the pyrohydrolysis temperature. Probe experiment results proved that the pyrohydrolysis process could produce high-grade hematite, while the loss of nickel and cobalt in the solid was minimal.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王宝全. 褐铁型红土镍矿常压盐酸浸出工艺研究[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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