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红土镍矿酸浸水解与镍铁渣镍铬提取工艺研究
Alternative TitleStudy on Acid Leaching and Hydrolysis of Laterite Ore and Recovery of Ni and Cr from Ferronickel Sla
张培育
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor齐涛 ; 曲景奎
2013-05-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Degree Discipline化学工程
Keyword红土镍矿   酸浸   水解   镍   镍铁渣
Abstract湿法冶金是处理褐铁型红土镍矿的主要方法和研究方向,火法冶金工艺主要用于处理蛇纹石型红土镍矿。基于本课题组对褐铁型红土镍矿盐酸常压酸浸的研究,本文提出了蛇纹石型红土镍矿盐酸常压酸浸新工艺,酸浸液水解除铁新工艺;并提出了针对火法工艺产生的镍铁渣中的镍、铬、铁资源化利用新方法。本文的主要研究内容包括: 1. 对蛇纹石型红土镍矿进行表征,并对其进行常压酸浸研究。确定了最优浸出条件。结果表明,在酸矿质量比为2.5:1,液固质量比为5:1,反应温度为100 ℃,反应时间为0.5 h条件下,镍、钴浸出率接近100%,铁的浸出率为86.3%。 2. 开展了模拟酸浸液水解工艺的研究,并确定了最优的水解条件。在水解温度为170 ℃,水解时间为2 h,水解压力为-0.07 MPa,补水量为1.67 mL/min条件下,铁的水解率可达95%以上,镍、钴的损失率较小,盐酸的回收率及回收盐酸浓度都较理想。 3. 研究了杂质离子对铁水解的影响规律。结果表明,酸浸液中杂质离子对铁的水解影响较大,特别是铝离子、铬离子的影响较大。降低杂质离子的浓度可以提高铁的水解率和盐酸的回收率,同时增加回收盐酸的浓度。 4. 开展了镍铁渣综合利用技术的研究。通过磁选,可将镍铁渣中的镍富集于精矿,大部分铬留在尾矿。精矿进行常压酸浸,在H2SO4浓度220 g/L,酸浸温度110 ℃,酸浸时间2 h,液固质量比5:1条件下,镍的浸出率可达91%以上。通过对镍的常压酸浸行为进行动力学研究表明,此反应属于通过产物层的扩散控制反应。尾矿用于碱熔焙烧提取铬,在Na2CO3/渣质量比0.65,焙烧温度1000 ℃,焙烧时间1 h,尾矿粒度-74 μm条件下,Cr的浸出率可达94%以上。
Other AbstractHydrometallurgy, as the main methods and direction of the treatment of laterite, is used to deal with hematite laterite. Pyrometallurgical is used to treat with ophiolite laterite. Integrated with the newly developed atmospheric hydrochloric acid leaching of hematite laterite which was studied by our research group, a similar process was proposed to deal with ophiolite laterite by atmospheric hydrochloric acid leaching process. A novel route of hydrolysis was proposed to eliminate Fe in the leaching solution. A novel process was proposed to make full use of Ni, Cr, and Fe in ferronickel slag which is produced by pyrometallurgical process. The main research contents in the current paper are as follows: 1. Characterize and analyse the mineral and chemical compositions of the ophiolite laterite ore. Study on atmosphere-pressure acid leaching of the ore was carried out. The optimum leaching conditions were determined. Under the optimum leaching conditions: mass ratio of acid to ore of 2.5:1, mass ratio of liquid to solid of 5:1, leaching temperature of 100 ℃, leaching time of 0.5 h, the leaching of Ni, Co, and Fe were 100%, 100%, and 86.3%, respectively. 2. Study on hydrolysis of Fe in the simulation of acid leaching solution was carried out. The optimum leaching conditions were determined. Under the optimum hydrolysis conditions: hydrolysis temperature of 170 ℃, hydrolysis time of 2 h, hydrolysis pressure of -0.07 MPa, additional water amount of 1.67 mL/min, the hydrolysis of Fe approached ~95%, the recovery of Ni and Co approached ~95%. The recovery of HCl and the concentration of HCl achieved good results. 3. The effect of the impure ions on the hydrolysis of Fe was studied. The hydrolysis of Fe, the recovery of HCl, and the concentration of HCl increase, as the concentration of the impure ions decline. 4. Study on the process of the treatment of ferronickel slag was carried out. After magnetic separation, Ni is enriched in magnetic concentrate and most of Cr is remained in non-magnetic tailing. Atmospheric acid leaching with H2SO4 is used to leach Ni in magnetic concentrate. Under the optimum leaching conditions: i.e., sulfuric acid concentration of 220 g/L, leaching temperature of 110 ℃, leaching time of 2 h, and mass ratio of liquid to solid of 5:1, 91.5% of Ni was leached out from the magnetic concentrate of ferronickel slag. The kinetics on the acid leaching of Ni from magnetic concentrate reveals that it corresponds to a diffusion controlled process. The leaching of Cr from the non–magnetic tailing was carried out by using alkali-roasting with Na2CO3 and then leaching with water. The optimum conditions of alkali-roasting are as follows: alkali-roasting temperature of 1000 ℃, mass ratio of alkali to slag of 0.65, alkali-roasting time of 1 h, particle size of -74 μm. Under these optimum conditions, 94.1% of Cr was leached out from the non-magnetic tailing of ferronickel slag.
Pages100
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/8357
Collection研究所(批量导入)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张培育. 红土镍矿酸浸水解与镍铁渣镍铬提取工艺研究[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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