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低成本微生物燃料电池的研究与应用
Alternative TitleThe Research and Application of Low-cost Microbial Fuel Cells
王鹏
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李浩然
2013-04-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Degree Discipline生物工程
Keyword微生物燃料电池   羰基铁   热解沉积   聚苯胺   电化学合成
Abstract微生物燃料电池(Microbial fuel cells, MFCs)是利用产电菌将有机物中的化学能转化为电能的装置,在能源、环境领域具有十分诱人的前景和广阔的市场,近几年来成为各国科研专家研究的热点。但是目前成本高效率低成为制约MFCs发展和应用的瓶颈。本课题研究了MFCs低价高效的阴阳极催化剂,保证MFCs产电性能的同时不断降低成本并推进阴阳极修饰的工艺化。 本研究利用液态羰基铁气化后受热分解的特性,在电加热的石墨毡表面热解羰基铁将单质铁沉积在石墨毡表面从而制备微生物燃料电池的电极,此方法代替了手工刷涂和Nafion溶液的使用,简化了电极制备步骤,提高了工艺效率。将制备的铁修饰的电极作为微生物燃料电池的阴极运行测试电池产电性能。结果表明,在启动初期由于阴极单质铁与电解液和空气接触氧化产生电子传递到阳极,从而形成负电势;电池启动完成后,最大输出电压、功率密度和最小表观内阻分别为220 mV、925mW/m3和278Ω。与阴极无修饰电池相比,电池产电性能得到了极大的提高,与阴极有铂修饰电池相比,其性能也略有提高。通过循环伏安法、能谱、红外光谱法以及XPS等多种测试手段证明阴极上单质铁经过氧化成为Fe2O3和FeOOH,而正是Fe2O3和FeOOH在阴极降低了氧气还原过电位,提高了阴极电子传递效率,促进了微生物燃料电池产电性能的提高。经过成本核算,每功率密度阴极涂覆铁的成本紧紧为涂铂成本的0.025%。将五个有铁修饰阴极的电池的阴极石墨毡取下作为阳极,铂修饰石墨毡作为阴极组装微生物燃料电池运行,测试阳极上三价铁的氧化物对产电性能的影响。结果表明,最大输出电压、功率密度和最小表观内阻分别为580 mV、5.7W/m3和51Ω。与阳极无修饰电池相比,电池产电性能得到了极大的提高。铁修饰石墨毡的电化学性能提高,有铁涂覆的石墨毡纤维表面微生物的附着量要远远大于无修饰石墨纤维表面的微生物附着量。 本研究中在苯胺的硫酸溶液中,用循环伏安法在石墨毡表面电化学合成聚苯胺,然后将聚苯胺修饰的石墨毡制成微生物燃料电池的阳极,通过与无修饰阳极的电池进行产电性能等方面的对比来表征聚苯胺在阳极的催化性能。通过输出电压、功率密度、内阻和启动时间等方面的比较,结果表明,最大输出电压、功率密度、启动时间和最小表观内阻分别为392 mV、4 W/m3、78小时和156 Ω。与阳极无修饰电池相比,电池产电性能得到了极大的提高。通过循环伏安法和线性扫描伏安法测试,与无修饰石墨毡的结果相比,阳极聚苯胺修饰石墨毡的电化学性能和电导率都有明显提升,电化学性能进一步提高。表面微生物的附着量要远远大于无修饰石墨纤维表面的微生物附着量。经成本核算,电化学合成聚苯胺阳极修饰的成本仅为化学合成聚苯胺修饰的3%。
Other AbstractMicrobial fuel cells (MFCs) rely on exoelectrogens for direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. With appealing prospect and broad market, MFCs have drawn global attention, but the high cost and low efficiency, as the key factors, still limits the practical application of MFCs. In this study, we investigated and prepared anodic and cathodic catalysts with low cost and high efficiency. The study promoted the lower construction cost of MFCs and effective catalytic preparation. An efficient and cost-effective method to prepare cathodes for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was developed. Fe(CO)5 was decomposed and Fe was deposited on graphite felts for cathodic preparation. The unmodified, Pt modified and Fe modified graphite felts were utilized as cathodes in MFCs and power generation was compared. The maximum power density of MFCs with unmodified, Pt modified and Fe modified cathodes were respectively 288, 866 and 925 mW/m3. The internal resistance of MFCs with unmodified, Pt modified and Fe modified cathodes were respectively 505, 384 and 278 Ω. The results of multiple analyses confirmed that Fe on cathode was Fe2O3 and FeOOH and Fe(Ⅲ) oxides as cathodic catalysts improved the electrochemical activity and promoted power generation. The unmodified and Fe modified graphite felts were utilized as anode in MFCs. Fe(Ⅲ) oxides on anode promoted the power generation of MFCs. The maximum power density of 18W/m3 and the internal resistance of 51Ω were obtained by the MFC with Fe modified anode, which was significantly superior to the performance of the MFC with unmodified anode. The electrochemical activity and attached bacterial density of Fe modified graphite felts were significantly higher than those of the unmodified graphite felts. The greatest advantage of new method for cathodic preparation was the replacing manual brushing and Nafion solution and decreasing the cost. PANI was electrochemically synthesized on graphite felt by cyclic voltammetry (CV), and PANI modified and unmodified graphite felts were utilized as anode of MFCs. The power generation of MFCs, electrochemical activity of graphite felts and anodic cell mass were compared. The maximum power density and the internal resistance of MFC with PANI modified anode were 4 W/m3 and 156 Ω respectively, yet those of MFC with unmodified anode were 1.7 W/m3 and 358 Ω. The startup time of MFC with PANI modified anode shortened and the electrochemical activity and cell mass of PANI modified graphite felt were significantly higher than that of the unmodified graphite felt.
Pages82
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/8371
Collection研究所(批量导入)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王鹏. 低成本微生物燃料电池的研究与应用[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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