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玛咖速溶粉制备及质量评价
Alternative TitlePreparation and Quality Evaluation of Instant Maca Powder
梁辰
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor赵兵
2013-05-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Degree Discipline生物工程
Keyword玛咖   超声辅助提取   喷雾干燥   助干剂   质量评价
Abstract本文针对玛咖产业发展需求,研究了超声提取和喷雾干燥制备玛咖速溶粉及其质量评价,保护了玛咖提取物生物活性,提高了溶解性,为玛咖提取物用于食品、酒类、饮料等更广泛的领域奠定了基础,取得的主要研究结果如下: 1. 提取方式的选择:比较了热水浸提、微波提取、超声提取三种不同提取方式,并通过均匀设计优化了超声提取工艺条件,即超声时间40 min、超声功率600 W、料液比1:25、超声温度50 ℃、占空比1:1。优化条件下,总可溶性固形物提取率为50.4%,与预测值52.0%相比相对误差在5%以内。在放大实验中,提取率达到56.5%。 2. 干燥方式的选择:研究了鼓风干燥、真空干燥、喷雾干燥三种不同干燥方式,分别测定和计算了三种不同干燥方式所得玛咖固形物的含水量及干燥前后样品营养成分的损失率,确定喷雾干燥为最佳干燥方式。 3. 干燥助剂的选择:研究了麦芽糊精、β-环糊精、玉米淀粉三种不同辅料对玛咖提取液喷雾干燥效果的影响,并以玛咖喷雾干燥得粉率为优化指标,均匀设计实验优化得到三种辅料的最优喷雾干燥工艺条件,并分别定量测定了三种辅料在最优喷雾干燥工艺条件下所得三种干燥样品中各营养成分的含量。 4. 喷雾干燥工艺优化:以麦芽糊精作为喷雾干燥辅料,在单因素实验的基础上,固定玛咖提取液中总可溶性固形物与辅料的重量比为1:1,进风温度为220 ℃,选取对玛咖速溶粉得率影响显著的3个因素(进风流量、料液流量、料液预热温度)进行Box-Behnken中心组合实验,优化了以麦芽糊精作为辅料喷雾干燥玛咖速溶粉的工艺条件,即玛咖提取液中总可溶性固形物与辅料重量比为1:1,料液浓度为0.1g/mL,进风温度为220 ℃,料液预热温度为56 ℃,料液流量为17.46 mL/min,进风流量为5 m3/min。在优化条件下,玛咖速溶粉得率的平均值为58.69%,与理论预测值58.7%相比,其相对误差在5%以内。该响应面模型能很好地模拟和预测玛咖提取物的喷雾干燥过程。 5. 玛咖速溶粉质量评价:研究了不同辅料对喷雾干燥玛咖速溶粉含水量、堆积密度、浊度、速溶性和稳定性的影响,表明辅料的添加减少了喷雾干燥玛咖速溶粉的含水量和堆积密度,不影响喷雾干燥玛咖速溶粉的速溶性和稳定性,对喷雾干燥玛咖速溶粉溶液的浊度影响小,对喷雾干燥玛咖速溶粉吸湿性有抑制作用,且使产品受氧化环境和喷雾干燥高温的影响较小,色泽稳定性较佳,具有较好的感官效果。 6. 生物活性初步研究:研究表明不加辅料喷雾干燥玛咖速溶粉与添加辅料喷雾干燥玛咖速溶粉对羟基自由基、超氧自由基、DPPH自由基有一定的清除作用,对Hela细胞也有一定抑制作用。
Other AbstractIn order to increase the maca additional value, and expand the scope of maca application in the fields of food, health and medicine, the preparation, quality evaluation standard and the biological activity of instant maca powder were investigated. The major research contents are as follows: 1. Different extraction methods: hot water extraction, microwave extraction and ultrasonic extraction were compared and the ultrasonic extraction conditions were optimized by uniform design. Under the optimal conditions, i.e.ultrasonic time of 40 min, ultrasonic power 600 W, ratio of solid to liquid 1:25, ultrasonic temperature 50 ℃ and duty ratio 1:1, the extraction rate of total soluble solid was 50.4%, compared to the predictive value of 52%, the relative error was within 5%. In the scale up extraction experiment, the extraction rate reached 56.5%. 2. Different drying methods: The water content and the nutrient loss of tatal maca soluble solids before and after hot air drying, vacuum drying and spray drying were measured and calculated. Making a comparison among the three drying methods, the spray drying was the best. 3. Drying auxiliary agents: The spray drying effects of maltodextrin, beta-cyclodextrin and corn starch on maca crude extract liquid were investigated. The yield of instant maca powder as the optimization target, uniform design experiments were used to optimizing spray drying conditions, and the nutrient contents of the samples with the three kinds of drying auxiliary agents were measured before and after drying process. 4. Optimizing the spray drying process: Maltodextrin as spray drying auxiliary agent, based on the single factor experiments, the ratio of maca total soluble solid weight to drying auxiliary agent weight was 1:1, hot air temperature was 220 ℃, significant three factors (feed temperature, feed flux, hot air flux) were chose for Box-Behnken central composite experiments. The optimial conditions of spray drying process were as follows: the weight ratio of maca soluble solid crude extract total soluble solid to drying auxiliary agent was 1:1, soluble solid concentration in the feed liquid was 0.1g/mL, hot air temperature was 220 ℃, feed temperature was 56 ℃, feed flux was 17.46 mL/min, hot air flux was 5 m3/min. Under the optimial conditions, the average yield of instant maca powder was 58.69%, compared with the theoretical predictive value of 58.7%, the relative error was less than 5%. The response surface model was able to simulate and predict maca extract spray drying process. 5. Instant maca powder quality evaluation: The effects of different spray drying auxiliary agents on the water content, bulk density, turbidity, solubility and stability of instant maca powder were studied. It was found that the addition of the auxiliary agents reduced the water content and bulk density of instant maca powder, but the solubility, stability and solution turbidity of instant maca powder were rarely affected, and moisture absorption of instant maca powder was inhibited. The product was rarely affected by oxidation environment and spray drying temperature. Its color stability was better. 6. Preliminary study on biological activity: The experimental results showed that the instant maca powder with and without spray drying auxiliary agents had a scavenging function to hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, DPPH radical, and inhibiting function to Hela cells.
Pages113
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/8379
Collection研究所(批量导入)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
梁辰. 玛咖速溶粉制备及质量评价[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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