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渣油裂化过程中催化剂上沉积重金属形态及其脱除方法的研究
张霞
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor于淑秋
1989-06-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Abstract裂化催化剂的耗量是石油二次加工的一项重要经济指标,重油或渣油的裂化,虽然能缓角原料的短缺,但同时又因其重金属含量较高,使裂化催化剂中毒严重,不得不依靠加快新鲜催化剂对平衡催化剂的替换速率,来使之保持一定的催化活性和选择性,造成裂化操作经济成本升高,不但如此,还随之带来了废催化剂的堆放以及环境污染问题,所以,裂化催化剂的再生并循环使用,具有重要意义。本文首先针对我国废渣油裂化催化剂上镍多钒少的特点,研究了催化剂上重金属污染物镍,铁的形态及分布,并在此基础上对石家庄平衡剂的再生进行了广泛探索,如(NH_4)_2SO_4焙烧-水浸出法,硫酸直接浸出以及拌酸焙烧-浸出法,(NH_4)_2SO_4及NH_3-(NH_4)_2SO_4 ((NH_4)_2GO_3)直接高温高压浸出和氢还原-高压氨浸取实验,另外还进行了柠檬酸按水溶液浸出,有机试剂的直接浸出等实验,对(NH_4)_2SO_4法进行了较仔细的研究。主要进行了下面几方面的工作:1、:从热力学角度出发,分析了硫酸铵焙烧脱除污染金属镍,铁的可能性。2、:考察了焙烧温度,焙烧时间,硫酸铵加入量以及水浸温度,液固比,洗水体积等参数对金属浸出率的影响并由此得到处理催化剂的较佳工艺条件。3、:在小型固定流化床上对处理前后的催化剂进行了评价,硫酸铵焙烧处理后的催化剂重金属污染程度降低,但转化率较平衡剂有一些减少。4、:在前面研究的基础上,考察了硫酸铵焙烧对分子筛结构的影响,研究表明,硫酸铵焙烧对分子筛的结构似乎没有影响,但引起分子筛中的稀土部分流失。
Other AbstractThis paper first investigates the forms and distribution of heavy metals such as Ni, Fe by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The many methods have been used for removing heavy metals on catalyst. For example, (NH_4)_2SO_4 roasting-leaching by water, sulfuric acid leaching directly and sulfuric acid roasting-leaching, (NH_4)_2SO_4 and NH_3-(NH_4)_2SO_4 ((NH_4)_2GO_3) leaching in high temperature and high pressure directly, hydrogen reduction-ammonia leaching experiment, ect. (NH_4)_2SO_4 roasting-leaching method has been studied deeply. (1): Thermodynamic analysis was carried out to decide the probility of removing heavy metals by (NH_4)_2SO_4 roasting-leaching method. (2): Various factors which influence the removal of heavy metals on catalyst such as roasting temperature, roasting time, (NH_4)_2SO_4/catalyst and leaching temperature, liquid-solid proportion, ect, have been investigated. The optimal condition for regenerating the poisoned catalyst has been introduced, too. (3): The catalyst before and after regeneration has been evaluated on small fixed-fluid bed. (4): The effect of (NH_4)_2SO_4 roasting on zeolite is studied. The results indicate that roasting may not influence zeolite, but causes the losses of rare-earth metals on zeolite.
Pages77
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ipe.ac.cn/handle/122111/8386
Collection研究所(批量导入)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张霞. 渣油裂化过程中催化剂上沉积重金属形态及其脱除方法的研究[D]. 中国科学院研究生院,1989.
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